Class

org.scalatest.path

FunSpec

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abstract class FunSpec extends FunSpecLike

A sister class to org.scalatest.FunSpec that isolates tests by running each test in its own instance of the test class, and for each test, only executing the path leading to that test.

Class path.FunSpec behaves similarly to class org.scalatest.FunSpec, except that tests are isolated based on their path. The purpose of path.FunSpec is to facilitate writing specification-style tests for mutable objects in a clear, boilerpate-free way. To test mutable objects, you need to mutate them. Using a path class, you can make a statement in text, then implement that statement in code (including mutating state), and nest and combine these test/code pairs in any way you wish. Each test will only see the side effects of code that is in blocks that enclose the test. Here's an example:

import org.scalatest.path
import org.scalatest.matchers.Matchers
import scala.collection.mutable.ListBuffer

class ExampleSpec extends path.FunSpec with Matchers {

  describe("A ListBuffer") {

    val buf = ListBuffer.empty[Int] // This implements "A ListBuffer"

    it("should be empty when created") {

      // This test sees:
      //   val buf = ListBuffer.empty[Int]
      // So buf is: ListBuffer()

      buf should be ('empty)
    }

    describe("when 1 is appended") {

      buf += 1 // This implements "when 1 is appended", etc...

      it("should contain 1") {

        // This test sees:
        //   val buf = ListBuffer.empty[Int]
        //   buf += 1
        // So buf is: ListBuffer(1)

        buf.remove(0) should equal (1)
        buf should be ('empty)
      }

      describe("when 2 is appended") {

        buf += 2

        it("should contain 1 and 2") {

          // This test sees:
          //   val buf = ListBuffer.empty[Int]
          //   buf += 1
          //   buf += 2
          // So buf is: ListBuffer(1, 2)

          buf.remove(0) should equal (1)
          buf.remove(0) should equal (2)
          buf should be ('empty)
        }

        describe("when 2 is removed") {

          buf -= 2

          it("should contain only 1 again") {

            // This test sees:
            //   val buf = ListBuffer.empty[Int]
            //   buf += 1
            //   buf += 2
            //   buf -= 2
            // So buf is: ListBuffer(1)

            buf.remove(0) should equal (1)
            buf should be ('empty)
          }
        }

        describe("when 3 is appended") {

          buf += 3

          it("should contain 1, 2, and 3") {

            // This test sees:
            //   val buf = ListBuffer.empty[Int]
            //   buf += 1
            //   buf += 2
            //   buf += 3
            // So buf is: ListBuffer(1, 2, 3)

            buf.remove(0) should equal (1)
            buf.remove(0) should equal (2)
            buf.remove(0) should equal (3)
            buf should be ('empty)
          }
        }
      }

      describe("when 88 is appended") {

        buf += 88

        it("should contain 1 and 88") {

          // This test sees:
          //   val buf = ListBuffer.empty[Int]
          //   buf += 1
          //   buf += 88
          // So buf is: ListBuffer(1, 88)

          buf.remove(0) should equal (1)
          buf.remove(0) should equal (88)
          buf should be ('empty)
        }
      }
    }

    it("should have size 0 when created") {

      // This test sees:
      //   val buf = ListBuffer.empty[Int]
      // So buf is: ListBuffer()

      buf should have size 0
    }
  }
}

Note that the above class is organized by writing a bit of specification text that opens a new block followed by, at the top of the new block, some code that "implements" or "performs" what is described in the text. This is repeated as the mutable object (here, a ListBuffer), is prepared for the enclosed tests. For example:

describe("A ListBuffer") {
  val buf = ListBuffer.empty[Int]

Or:

describe("when 2 is appended") {
  buf += 2

Note also that although each test mutates the ListBuffer, none of the other tests observe those side effects:

it("should contain 1") {

  buf.remove(0) should equal (1)
  // ...
}

describe("when 2 is appended") {

  buf += 2

  it("should contain 1 and 2") {

    // This test does not see the buf.remove(0) from the previous test,
    // so the first element in the ListBuffer is again 1
    buf.remove(0) should equal (1)
    buf.remove(0) should equal (2)

This kind of isolation of tests from each other is a consequence of running each test in its own instance of the test class, and can also be achieved by simply mixing OneInstancePerTest into a regular org.scalatest.FunSpec. However, path.FunSpec takes isolation one step further: a test in a path.FunSpec does not observe side effects performed outside tests in earlier blocks that do not enclose it. Here's an example:

describe("when 2 is removed") {

  buf -= 2

  // ...
}

describe("when 3 is appended") {

  buf += 3

  it("should contain 1, 2, and 3") {

    // This test does not see the buf -= 2 from the earlier "when 2 is removed" block,
    // because that block does not enclose this test, so the second element in the
    // ListBuffer is still 2
    buf.remove(0) should equal (1)
    buf.remove(0) should equal (2)
    buf.remove(0) should equal (3)

Running the full ExampleSpec, shown above, in the Scala interpeter would give you:

scala> import org.scalatest._
import org.scalatest._

scala> run(new ExampleSpec)
ExampleSpec:
A ListBuffer
- should be empty when created
  when 1 is appended
  - should contain 1
    when 2 is appended
    - should contain 1 and 2
      when 2 is removed
      - should contain only 1 again
      when 3 is appended
      - should contain 1, 2, and 3
    when 88 is appended
    - should contain 1 and 88
- should have size 0 when created

Note: class path.FunSpec's approach to isolation was inspired in part by the specsy framework, written by Esko Luontola.

Shared fixtures

A test fixture is objects or other artifacts (such as files, sockets, database connections, etc.) used by tests to do their work. If a fixture is used by only one test, then the definitions of the fixture objects can be local to the method. If multiple tests need to share an immutable fixture, you can simply assign them to instance variables. If multiple tests need to share mutable fixture objects or vars, there's one and only one way to do it in a path.FunSpec: place the mutable objects lexically before the test. Any mutations needed by the test must be placed lexically before and/or after the test. As used here, "Lexically before" means that the code needs to be executed during construction of that test's instance of the test class to reach the test (or put another way, the code is along the "path to the test.") "Lexically after" means that the code needs to be executed to exit the constructor after the test has been executed.

The reason lexical placement is the one and only one way to share fixtures in a path.FunSpec is because all of its lifecycle methods are overridden and declared final. Thus you can't mix in BeforeAndAfter or BeforeAndAfterEach, because both override runTest, which is final in a path.FunSpec. You also can't override withFixture, because path.FreeSpec extends Suite not TestSuite, where withFixture is defined. In short:

In a path.FunSpec, if you need some code to execute before a test, place that code lexically before the test. If you need some code to execute after a test, place that code lexically after the test.

The reason the life cycle methods are final, by the way, is to prevent users from attempting to combine a path.FunSpec's approach to isolation with other ways ScalaTest provides to share fixtures or execute tests, because doing so could make the resulting test code hard to reason about. A path.FunSpec's execution model is a bit magical, but because it executes in one and only one way, users should be able to reason about the code. To help you visualize how a path.FunSpec is executed, consider the following variant of ExampleSpec that includes print statements:

import org.scalatest.path
import org.scalatest.matchers.Matchers
import scala.collection.mutable.ListBuffer

class ExampleSpec extends path.FunSpec with Matchers {

  println("Start of: ExampleSpec")
  describe("A ListBuffer") {

    println("Start of: A ListBuffer")
    val buf = ListBuffer.empty[Int]

    it("should be empty when created") {

      println("In test: should be empty when created; buf is: " + buf)
      buf should be ('empty)
    }

    describe("when 1 is appended") {

      println("Start of: when 1 is appended")
      buf += 1

      it("should contain 1") {

        println("In test: should contain 1; buf is: " + buf)
        buf.remove(0) should equal (1)
        buf should be ('empty)
      }

      describe("when 2 is appended") {

        println("Start of: when 2 is appended")
        buf += 2

        it("should contain 1 and 2") {

          println("In test: should contain 1 and 2; buf is: " + buf)
          buf.remove(0) should equal (1)
          buf.remove(0) should equal (2)
          buf should be ('empty)
        }

        describe("when 2 is removed") {

          println("Start of: when 2 is removed")
          buf -= 2

          it("should contain only 1 again") {

            println("In test: should contain only 1 again; buf is: " + buf)
            buf.remove(0) should equal (1)
            buf should be ('empty)
          }

          println("End of: when 2 is removed")
        }

        describe("when 3 is appended") {

          println("Start of: when 3 is appended")
          buf += 3

          it("should contain 1, 2, and 3") {

            println("In test: should contain 1, 2, and 3; buf is: " + buf)
            buf.remove(0) should equal (1)
            buf.remove(0) should equal (2)
            buf.remove(0) should equal (3)
            buf should be ('empty)
          }
          println("End of: when 3 is appended")
        }

        println("End of: when 2 is appended")
      }

      describe("when 88 is appended") {

        println("Start of: when 88 is appended")
        buf += 88

        it("should contain 1 and 88") {

          println("In test: should contain 1 and 88; buf is: " + buf)
          buf.remove(0) should equal (1)
          buf.remove(0) should equal (88)
          buf should be ('empty)
        }

        println("End of: when 88 is appended")
      }

      println("End of: when 1 is appended")
    }

    it("should have size 0 when created") {

      println("In test: should have size 0 when created; buf is: " + buf)
      buf should have size 0
    }

    println("End of: A ListBuffer")
  }
  println("End of: ExampleSpec")
  println()
}

Running the above version of ExampleSpec in the Scala interpreter will give you output similar to:

scala> import org.scalatest._
import org.scalatest._

scala> run(new ExampleSpec)
ExampleSpec:
Start of: ExampleSpec
Start of: A ListBuffer
In test: should be empty when created; buf is: ListBuffer()
End of: A ListBuffer
End of: ExampleSpec

Start of: ExampleSpec
Start of: A ListBuffer
Start of: when 1 is appended
In test: should contain 1; buf is: ListBuffer(1)
ExampleSpec:
End of: when 1 is appended
End of: A ListBuffer
End of: ExampleSpec

Start of: ExampleSpec
Start of: A ListBuffer
Start of: when 1 is appended
Start of: when 2 is appended
In test: should contain 1 and 2; buf is: ListBuffer(1, 2)
End of: when 2 is appended
End of: when 1 is appended
End of: A ListBuffer
End of: ExampleSpec

Start of: ExampleSpec
Start of: A ListBuffer
Start of: when 1 is appended
Start of: when 2 is appended
Start of: when 2 is removed
In test: should contain only 1 again; buf is: ListBuffer(1)
End of: when 2 is removed
End of: when 2 is appended
End of: when 1 is appended
End of: A ListBuffer
End of: ExampleSpec

Start of: ExampleSpec
Start of: A ListBuffer
Start of: when 1 is appended
Start of: when 2 is appended
Start of: when 3 is appended
In test: should contain 1, 2, and 3; buf is: ListBuffer(1, 2, 3)
End of: when 3 is appended
End of: when 2 is appended
End of: when 1 is appended
End of: A ListBuffer
End of: ExampleSpec

Start of: ExampleSpec
Start of: A ListBuffer
Start of: when 1 is appended
Start of: when 88 is appended
In test: should contain 1 and 88; buf is: ListBuffer(1, 88)
End of: when 88 is appended
End of: when 1 is appended
End of: A ListBuffer
End of: ExampleSpec

Start of: ExampleSpec
Start of: A ListBuffer
In test: should have size 0 when created; buf is: ListBuffer()
End of: A ListBuffer
End of: ExampleSpec

A ListBuffer
- should be empty when created
  when 1 is appended
  - should contain 1
    when 2 is appended
    - should contain 1 and 2
      when 2 is removed
      - should contain only 1 again
      when 3 is appended
      - should contain 1, 2, and 3
    when 88 is appended
    - should contain 1 and 88
- should have size 0 when created

Note that each test is executed in order of appearance in the path.FunSpec, and that only those println statements residing in blocks that enclose the test being run are executed. Any println statements in blocks that do not form the "path" to a test are not executed in the instance of the class that executes that test.

How it executes

To provide its special brand of test isolation, path.FunSpec executes quite differently from its sister class in org.scalatest. An org.scalatest.FunSpec registers tests during construction and executes them when run is invoked. An org.scalatest.path.FunSpec, by contrast, runs each test in its own instance while that instance is being constructed. During construction, it registers not the tests to run, but the results of running those tests. When run is invoked on a path.FunSpec, it reports the registered results and does not run the tests again. If run is invoked a second or third time, in fact, a path.FunSpec will each time report the same results registered during construction. If you want to run the tests of a path.FunSpec anew, you'll need to create a new instance and invoke run on that.

A path.FunSpec will create one instance for each "leaf" node it contains. The main kind of leaf node is a test, such as:

// One instance will be created for each test
it("should be empty when created") {
  buf should be ('empty)
}

However, an empty scope (a scope that contains no tests or nested scopes) is also a leaf node:

 // One instance will be created for each empty scope
describe("when 99 is added") {
  // A scope is "empty" and therefore a leaf node if it has no
  // tests or nested scopes, though it may have other code (which
  // will be executed in the instance created for that leaf node)
  buf += 99
}

The tests will be executed sequentially, in the order of appearance. The first test (or empty scope, if that is first) will be executed when a class that mixes in path.FunSpec is instantiated. Only the first test will be executed during this initial instance, and of course, only the path to that test. Then, the first time the client uses the initial instance (by invoking one of run, expectedTestsCount, tags, or testNames on the instance), the initial instance will, before doing anything else, ensure that any remaining tests are executed, each in its own instance.

To ensure that the correct path is taken in each instance, and to register its test results, the initial path.FunSpec instance must communicate with the other instances it creates for running any subsequent leaf nodes. It does so by setting a thread-local variable prior to creating each instance (a technique suggested by Esko Luontola). Each instance of path.FunSpec checks the thread-local variable. If the thread-local is not set, it knows it is an initial instance and therefore executes every block it encounters until it discovers, and executes the first test (or empty scope, if that's the first leaf node). It then discovers, but does not execute the next leaf node, or discovers there are no other leaf nodes remaining to execute. It communicates the path to the next leaf node, if any, and the result of running the test it did execute, if any, back to the initial instance. The initial instance repeats this process until all leaf nodes have been executed and all test results registered.

Ignored tests

You mark a test as ignored in an org.scalatest.path.FunSpec in the same manner as in an org.scalatest.FunSpec. Please see the Ignored tests section in its documentation for more information.

Note that a separate instance will be created for an ignored test, and the path to the ignored test will be executed in that instance, but the test function itself will not be executed. Instead, a TestIgnored event will be fired.

Informers

You output information using Informers in an org.scalatest.path.FunSpec in the same manner as in an org.scalatest.FunSpec. Please see the Informers section in its documentation for more information.

Pending tests

You mark a test as pending in an org.scalatest.path.FunSpec in the same manner as in an org.scalatest.FunSpec. Please see the Pending tests section in its documentation for more information.

Note that a separate instance will be created for a pending test, and the path to the ignored test will be executed in that instance, as well as the test function (up until it completes abruptly with a TestPendingException).

Tagging tests

You can place tests into groups by tagging them in an org.scalatest.path.FunSpec in the same manner as in an org.scalatest.FunSpec. Please see the Tagging tests section in its documentation for more information.

Note that one difference between this class and its sister class org.scalatest.FunSpec is that because tests are executed at construction time, rather than each time run is invoked, an org.scalatest.path.FunSpec will always execute all non-ignored tests. When run is invoked on a path.FunSpec, if some tests are excluded based on tags, the registered results of running those tests will not be reported. (But those tests will have already run and the results registered.) By contrast, because an org.scalatest.FunSpec only executes tests after run has been called, and at that time the tags to include and exclude are known, only tests selected by the tags will be executed.

In short, in an org.scalatest.FunSpec, tests not selected by the tags to include and exclude specified for the run (via the Filter passed to run) will not be executed. In an org.scalatest.path.FunSpec, by contrast, all non-ignored tests will be executed, each during the construction of its own instance, and tests not selected by the tags to include and exclude specified for a run will not be reported. (One upshot of this is that if you have tests that you want to tag as being slow so you can sometimes exclude them during a run, you probably don't want to put them in a path.FunSpec. Because in a path.Freespec the slow tests will be run regardless, with only their registered results not being reported if you exclude slow tests during a run.)

Shared tests

You can factor out shared tests in an org.scalatest.path.FunSpec in the same manner as in an org.scalatest.FunSpec. Please see the Shared tests section in its documentation for more information.

Nested suites

Nested suites are not allowed in a path.FunSpec. Because a path.FunSpec executes tests eagerly at construction time, registering the results of those test runs and reporting them later when run is invoked, the order of nested suites versus test runs would be different in a org.scalatest.path.FunSpec than in an org.scalatest.FunSpec. In org.scalatest.FunSpec's implementation of run, nested suites are executed then tests are executed. A org.scalatest.path.FunSpec with nested suites would execute these in the opposite order: first tests then nested suites. To help make path.FunSpec code easier to reason about by giving readers of one less difference to think about, nested suites are not allowed. If you want to add nested suites to a path.FunSpec, you can instead wrap them all in a Suites object. They will be executed in the order of appearance (unless a Distributor is passed, in which case they will execute in parallel).

Durations

Many ScalaTest events include a duration that indicates how long the event being reported took to execute. For example, a TestSucceeded event provides a duration indicating how long it took for that test to execute. A SuiteCompleted event provides a duration indicating how long it took for that entire suite of tests to execute.

In the test completion events fired by a path.FunSpec (TestSucceeded, TestFailed, or TestPending), the durations reported refer to the time it took for the tests to run. This time is registered with the test results and reported along with the test results each time run is invoked. By contrast, the suite completion events fired for a path.FunSpec represent the amount of time it took to report the registered results. (These events are not fired by path.FunSpec, but instead by the entity that invokes run on the path.FunSpec.) As a result, the total time for running the tests of a path.FunSpec, calculated by summing the durations of all the individual test completion events, may be greater than the duration reported for executing the entire suite.

Annotations
@Finders()
Linear Supertypes
FunSpecLike, Documenting, Alerting, Notifying, Informing, OneInstancePerTest, SuiteMixin, Suite, Serializable, Serializable, Assertions, TripleEquals, TripleEqualsSupport, AnyRef, Any
Ordering
  1. Alphabetic
  2. By Inheritance
Inherited
  1. FunSpec
  2. FunSpecLike
  3. Documenting
  4. Alerting
  5. Notifying
  6. Informing
  7. OneInstancePerTest
  8. SuiteMixin
  9. Suite
  10. Serializable
  11. Serializable
  12. Assertions
  13. TripleEquals
  14. TripleEqualsSupport
  15. AnyRef
  16. Any
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Visibility
  1. Public
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Instance Constructors

  1. new FunSpec()

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Type Members

  1. class AssertionsHelper extends AnyRef

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    Helper class used by code generated by the assert macro.

    Helper class used by code generated by the assert macro.

    Definition Classes
    Assertions
  2. class CheckingEqualizer[L] extends AnyRef

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    Definition Classes
    TripleEqualsSupport
  3. class Equalizer[L] extends AnyRef

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    Definition Classes
    TripleEqualsSupport
  4. class ItWord extends AnyRef

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    Class that, via an instance referenced from the it field, supports test (and shared test) registration in FunSpecs.

    Class that, via an instance referenced from the it field, supports test (and shared test) registration in FunSpecs.

    This class supports syntax such as the following test registration:

    it("should be empty")
    ^
    

    and the following shared test registration:

    it should behave like nonFullStack(stackWithOneItem)
    ^
    

    For more information and examples, see the main documentation for path.FunSpec.

    Attributes
    protected
    Definition Classes
    FunSpecLike
  5. class TheyWord extends AnyRef

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    Class that, via an instance referenced from the they field, supports test (and shared test) registration in FunSpecs.

    Class that, via an instance referenced from the they field, supports test (and shared test) registration in FunSpecs.

    This class supports syntax such as the following test registration:

    they("should be empty")
    ^
    

    and the following shared test registration:

    they should behave like nonFullStack(stackWithOneItem)
    ^
    

    For more information and examples, see the main documentation for path.FunSpec.

    Attributes
    protected
    Definition Classes
    FunSpecLike

Abstract Value Members

  1. abstract def newInstance: FunSpecLike

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    Construct a new instance of this Suite.

    Construct a new instance of this Suite.

    This trait's implementation of runTests invokes this method to create a new instance of this Suite for each test. This trait's implementation of this method uses reflection to call this.getClass.newInstance. This approach will succeed only if this Suite's class has a public, no-arg constructor. In most cases this is likely to be true, because to be instantiated by ScalaTest's Runner a Suite needs a public, no-arg constructor. However, this will not be true of any Suite defined as an inner class of another class or trait, because every constructor of an inner class type takes a reference to the enclosing instance. In such cases, and in cases where a Suite class is explicitly defined without a public, no-arg constructor, you will need to override this method to construct a new instance of the Suite in some other way.

    Here's an example of how you could override newInstance to construct a new instance of an inner class:

    import org.scalatest.Suite
    
    class Outer {
      class InnerSuite extends Suite with OneInstancePerTest {
        def testOne() {}
        def testTwo() {}
        override def newInstance = new InnerSuite
      }
    }
    

    Definition Classes
    FunSpecLikeOneInstancePerTest

Concrete Value Members

  1. final def !=(arg0: Any): Boolean

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    Definition Classes
    AnyRef → Any
  2. def !==[T](right: Spread[T]): TripleEqualsInvocationOnSpread[T]

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    Definition Classes
    TripleEqualsSupport
  3. def !==(right: Null): TripleEqualsInvocation[Null]

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    Definition Classes
    TripleEqualsSupport
  4. def !==[T](right: T): TripleEqualsInvocation[T]

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    Definition Classes
    TripleEqualsSupport
  5. final def ##(): Int

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    Definition Classes
    AnyRef → Any
  6. final def ==(arg0: Any): Boolean

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    Definition Classes
    AnyRef → Any
  7. def ===[T](right: Spread[T]): TripleEqualsInvocationOnSpread[T]

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    Definition Classes
    TripleEqualsSupport
  8. def ===(right: Null): TripleEqualsInvocation[Null]

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    Definition Classes
    TripleEqualsSupport
  9. def ===[T](right: T): TripleEqualsInvocation[T]

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    Definition Classes
    TripleEqualsSupport
  10. def alert: Alerter

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    Returns an Alerter that during test execution will forward strings passed to its apply method to the current reporter.

    Returns an Alerter that during test execution will forward strings passed to its apply method to the current reporter. If invoked in a constructor, it will register the passed string for forwarding later during test execution. If invoked while this path.FunSpec is being executed, such as from inside a test function, it will forward the information to the current reporter immediately. If invoked at any other time, it will print to the standard output. This method can be called safely by any thread.

    Attributes
    protected
    Definition Classes
    FunSpecLikeAlerting
  11. final def asInstanceOf[T0]: T0

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    Definition Classes
    Any
  12. macro def assert(condition: Boolean, clue: Any)(implicit prettifier: Prettifier, pos: Position): Assertion

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    Assert that a boolean condition, described in String message, is true.

    Assert that a boolean condition, described in String message, is true. If the condition is true, this method returns normally. Else, it throws TestFailedException with a helpful error message appended with the String obtained by invoking toString on the specified clue as the exception's detail message.

    This method is implemented in terms of a Scala macro that will generate a more helpful error message for expressions of this form:

    • assert(a == b, "a good clue")
    • assert(a != b, "a good clue")
    • assert(a === b, "a good clue")
    • assert(a !== b, "a good clue")
    • assert(a > b, "a good clue")
    • assert(a >= b, "a good clue")
    • assert(a < b, "a good clue")
    • assert(a <= b, "a good clue")
    • assert(a startsWith "prefix", "a good clue")
    • assert(a endsWith "postfix", "a good clue")
    • assert(a contains "something", "a good clue")
    • assert(a eq b, "a good clue")
    • assert(a ne b, "a good clue")
    • assert(a > 0 && b > 5, "a good clue")
    • assert(a > 0 || b > 5, "a good clue")
    • assert(a.isEmpty, "a good clue")
    • assert(!a.isEmpty, "a good clue")
    • assert(a.isInstanceOf[String], "a good clue")
    • assert(a.length == 8, "a good clue")
    • assert(a.size == 8, "a good clue")
    • assert(a.exists(_ == 8), "a good clue")

    At this time, any other form of expression will just get a TestFailedException with message saying the given expression was false. In the future, we will enhance this macro to give helpful error messages in more situations. In ScalaTest 2.0, however, this behavior was sufficient to allow the === that returns Boolean to be the default in tests. This makes === consistent between tests and production code.

    condition

    the boolean condition to assert

    clue

    An objects whose toString method returns a message to include in a failure report.

    Definition Classes
    Assertions
    Exceptions thrown

    NullArgumentException if message is null.

    TestFailedException if the condition is false.

  13. macro def assert(condition: Boolean)(implicit prettifier: Prettifier, pos: Position): Assertion

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    Assert that a boolean condition is true.

    Assert that a boolean condition is true. If the condition is true, this method returns normally. Else, it throws TestFailedException.

    This method is implemented in terms of a Scala macro that will generate a more helpful error message for expressions of this form:

    • assert(a == b)
    • assert(a != b)
    • assert(a === b)
    • assert(a !== b)
    • assert(a > b)
    • assert(a >= b)
    • assert(a < b)
    • assert(a <= b)
    • assert(a startsWith "prefix")
    • assert(a endsWith "postfix")
    • assert(a contains "something")
    • assert(a eq b)
    • assert(a ne b)
    • assert(a > 0 && b > 5)
    • assert(a > 0 || b > 5)
    • assert(a.isEmpty)
    • assert(!a.isEmpty)
    • assert(a.isInstanceOf[String])
    • assert(a.length == 8)
    • assert(a.size == 8)
    • assert(a.exists(_ == 8))

    At this time, any other form of expression will get a TestFailedException with message saying the given expression was false. In the future, we will enhance this macro to give helpful error messages in more situations. In ScalaTest 2.0, however, this behavior was sufficient to allow the === that returns Boolean to be the default in tests. This makes === consistent between tests and production code.

    condition

    the boolean condition to assert

    Definition Classes
    Assertions
    Exceptions thrown

    TestFailedException if the condition is false.

  14. macro def assertCompiles(code: String)(implicit pos: Position): Assertion

    Permalink

    Asserts that a given string snippet of code passes both the Scala parser and type checker.

    Asserts that a given string snippet of code passes both the Scala parser and type checker.

    You can use this to make sure a snippet of code compiles:

    assertCompiles("val a: Int = 1")
    

    Although assertCompiles is implemented with a macro that determines at compile time whether the snippet of code represented by the passed string compiles, errors (i.e., snippets of code that do not compile) are reported as test failures at runtime.

    code

    the snippet of code that should compile

    Definition Classes
    Assertions
  15. macro def assertDoesNotCompile(code: String)(implicit pos: Position): Assertion

    Permalink

    Asserts that a given string snippet of code does not pass either the Scala parser or type checker.

    Asserts that a given string snippet of code does not pass either the Scala parser or type checker.

    Often when creating libraries you may wish to ensure that certain arrangements of code that represent potential “user errors” do not compile, so that your library is more error resistant. ScalaTest's Assertions trait includes the following syntax for that purpose:

    assertDoesNotCompile("val a: String = \"a string")
    

    Although assertDoesNotCompile is implemented with a macro that determines at compile time whether the snippet of code represented by the passed string doesn't compile, errors (i.e., snippets of code that do compile) are reported as test failures at runtime.

    Note that the difference between assertTypeError and assertDoesNotCompile is that assertDoesNotCompile will succeed if the given code does not compile for any reason, whereas assertTypeError will only succeed if the given code does not compile because of a type error. If the given code does not compile because of a syntax error, for example, assertDoesNotCompile will return normally but assertTypeError will throw a TestFailedException.

    code

    the snippet of code that should not type check

    Definition Classes
    Assertions
  16. def assertResult(expected: Any)(actual: Any)(implicit prettifier: Prettifier, pos: Position): Assertion

    Permalink

    Assert that the value passed as expected equals the value passed as actual.

    Assert that the value passed as expected equals the value passed as actual. If the actual value equals the expected value (as determined by ==), assertResult returns normally. Else, assertResult throws a TestFailedException whose detail message includes the expected and actual values.

    expected

    the expected value

    actual

    the actual value, which should equal the passed expected value

    Definition Classes
    Assertions
    Exceptions thrown

    TestFailedException if the passed actual value does not equal the passed expected value.

  17. def assertResult(expected: Any, clue: Any)(actual: Any)(implicit prettifier: Prettifier, pos: Position): Assertion

    Permalink

    Assert that the value passed as expected equals the value passed as actual.

    Assert that the value passed as expected equals the value passed as actual. If the actual equals the expected (as determined by ==), assertResult returns normally. Else, if actual is not equal to expected, assertResult throws a TestFailedException whose detail message includes the expected and actual values, as well as the String obtained by invoking toString on the passed clue.

    expected

    the expected value

    clue

    An object whose toString method returns a message to include in a failure report.

    actual

    the actual value, which should equal the passed expected value

    Definition Classes
    Assertions
    Exceptions thrown

    TestFailedException if the passed actual value does not equal the passed expected value.

  18. def assertThrows[T <: AnyRef](f: ⇒ Any)(implicit classTag: ClassTag[T], pos: Position): Assertion

    Permalink

    Ensure that an expected exception is thrown by the passed function value.

    Ensure that an expected exception is thrown by the passed function value. The thrown exception must be an instance of the type specified by the type parameter of this method. This method invokes the passed function. If the function throws an exception that's an instance of the specified type, this method returns Succeeded. Else, whether the passed function returns normally or completes abruptly with a different exception, this method throws TestFailedException.

    Note that the type specified as this method's type parameter may represent any subtype of AnyRef, not just Throwable or one of its subclasses. In Scala, exceptions can be caught based on traits they implement, so it may at times make sense to specify a trait that the intercepted exception's class must mix in. If a class instance is passed for a type that could not possibly be used to catch an exception (such as String, for example), this method will complete abruptly with a TestFailedException.

    Also note that the difference between this method and intercept is that this method does not return the expected exception, so it does not let you perform further assertions on that exception. Instead, this method returns Succeeded, which means it can serve as the last statement in an async- or safe-style suite. It also indicates to the reader of the code that nothing further is expected about the thrown exception other than its type. The recommended usage is to use assertThrows by default, intercept only when you need to inspect the caught exception further.

    f

    the function value that should throw the expected exception

    classTag

    an implicit ClassTag representing the type of the specified type parameter.

    returns

    the Succeeded singleton, if an exception of the expected type is thrown

    Definition Classes
    Assertions
    Exceptions thrown

    TestFailedException if the passed function does not complete abruptly with an exception that's an instance of the specified type.

  19. macro def assertTypeError(code: String)(implicit pos: Position): Assertion

    Permalink

    Asserts that a given string snippet of code does not pass the Scala type checker, failing if the given snippet does not pass the Scala parser.

    Asserts that a given string snippet of code does not pass the Scala type checker, failing if the given snippet does not pass the Scala parser.

    Often when creating libraries you may wish to ensure that certain arrangements of code that represent potential “user errors” do not compile, so that your library is more error resistant. ScalaTest's Assertions trait includes the following syntax for that purpose:

    assertTypeError("val a: String = 1")
    

    Although assertTypeError is implemented with a macro that determines at compile time whether the snippet of code represented by the passed string type checks, errors (i.e., snippets of code that do type check) are reported as test failures at runtime.

    Note that the difference between assertTypeError and assertDoesNotCompile is that assertDoesNotCompile will succeed if the given code does not compile for any reason, whereas assertTypeError will only succeed if the given code does not compile because of a type error. If the given code does not compile because of a syntax error, for example, assertDoesNotCompile will return normally but assertTypeError will throw a TestFailedException.

    code

    the snippet of code that should not type check

    Definition Classes
    Assertions
  20. val assertionsHelper: AssertionsHelper

    Permalink

    Helper instance used by code generated by macro assertion.

    Helper instance used by code generated by macro assertion.

    Definition Classes
    Assertions
  21. macro def assume(condition: Boolean, clue: Any)(implicit prettifier: Prettifier, pos: Position): Assertion

    Permalink

    Assume that a boolean condition, described in String message, is true.

    Assume that a boolean condition, described in String message, is true. If the condition is true, this method returns normally. Else, it throws TestCanceledException with a helpful error message appended with String obtained by invoking toString on the specified clue as the exception's detail message.

    This method is implemented in terms of a Scala macro that will generate a more helpful error message for expressions of this form:

    • assume(a == b, "a good clue")
    • assume(a != b, "a good clue")
    • assume(a === b, "a good clue")
    • assume(a !== b, "a good clue")
    • assume(a > b, "a good clue")
    • assume(a >= b, "a good clue")
    • assume(a < b, "a good clue")
    • assume(a <= b, "a good clue")
    • assume(a startsWith "prefix", "a good clue")
    • assume(a endsWith "postfix", "a good clue")
    • assume(a contains "something", "a good clue")
    • assume(a eq b, "a good clue")
    • assume(a ne b, "a good clue")
    • assume(a > 0 && b > 5, "a good clue")
    • assume(a > 0 || b > 5, "a good clue")
    • assume(a.isEmpty, "a good clue")
    • assume(!a.isEmpty, "a good clue")
    • assume(a.isInstanceOf[String], "a good clue")
    • assume(a.length == 8, "a good clue")
    • assume(a.size == 8, "a good clue")
    • assume(a.exists(_ == 8), "a good clue")

    At this time, any other form of expression will just get a TestCanceledException with message saying the given expression was false. In the future, we will enhance this macro to give helpful error messages in more situations. In ScalaTest 2.0, however, this behavior was sufficient to allow the === that returns Boolean to be the default in tests. This makes === consistent between tests and production code.

    condition

    the boolean condition to assume

    clue

    An objects whose toString method returns a message to include in a failure report.

    Definition Classes
    Assertions
    Exceptions thrown

    NullArgumentException if message is null.

    TestCanceledException if the condition is false.

  22. macro def assume(condition: Boolean)(implicit prettifier: Prettifier, pos: Position): Assertion

    Permalink

    Assume that a boolean condition is true.

    Assume that a boolean condition is true. If the condition is true, this method returns normally. Else, it throws TestCanceledException.

    This method is implemented in terms of a Scala macro that will generate a more helpful error message for expressions of this form:

    • assume(a == b)
    • assume(a != b)
    • assume(a === b)
    • assume(a !== b)
    • assume(a > b)
    • assume(a >= b)
    • assume(a < b)
    • assume(a <= b)
    • assume(a startsWith "prefix")
    • assume(a endsWith "postfix")
    • assume(a contains "something")
    • assume(a eq b)
    • assume(a ne b)
    • assume(a > 0 && b > 5)
    • assume(a > 0 || b > 5)
    • assume(a.isEmpty)
    • assume(!a.isEmpty)
    • assume(a.isInstanceOf[String])
    • assume(a.length == 8)
    • assume(a.size == 8)
    • assume(a.exists(_ == 8))

    At this time, any other form of expression will just get a TestCanceledException with message saying the given expression was false. In the future, we will enhance this macro to give helpful error messages in more situations. In ScalaTest 2.0, however, this behavior was sufficient to allow the === that returns Boolean to be the default in tests. This makes === consistent between tests and production code.

    condition

    the boolean condition to assume

    Definition Classes
    Assertions
    Exceptions thrown

    TestCanceledException if the condition is false.

  23. val behave: BehaveWord

    Permalink

    Supports shared test registration in path.FunSpecs.

    Supports shared test registration in path.FunSpecs.

    This field supports syntax such as the following:

    it should behave like nonFullStack(stackWithOneItem)
              ^
    

    For more information and examples of the use of <cod>behave, see the Shared tests section in the main documentation for sister trait org.scalatest.FunSpec.

    Attributes
    protected
    Definition Classes
    FunSpecLike
  24. def cancel(cause: Throwable)(implicit pos: Position): Nothing

    Permalink

    Throws TestCanceledException, with the passed Throwable cause, to indicate a test failed.

    Throws TestCanceledException, with the passed Throwable cause, to indicate a test failed. The getMessage method of the thrown TestCanceledException will return cause.toString.

    cause

    a Throwable that indicates the cause of the cancellation.

    Definition Classes
    Assertions
    Exceptions thrown

    NullArgumentException if cause is null

  25. def cancel(message: String, cause: Throwable)(implicit pos: Position): Nothing

    Permalink

    Throws TestCanceledException, with the passed String message as the exception's detail message and Throwable cause, to indicate a test failed.

    Throws TestCanceledException, with the passed String message as the exception's detail message and Throwable cause, to indicate a test failed.

    message

    A message describing the failure.

    cause

    A Throwable that indicates the cause of the failure.

    Definition Classes
    Assertions
    Exceptions thrown

    NullArgumentException if message or cause is null

  26. def cancel(message: String)(implicit pos: Position): Nothing

    Permalink

    Throws TestCanceledException, with the passed String message as the exception's detail message, to indicate a test was canceled.

    Throws TestCanceledException, with the passed String message as the exception's detail message, to indicate a test was canceled.

    message

    A message describing the cancellation.

    Definition Classes
    Assertions
    Exceptions thrown

    NullArgumentException if message is null

  27. def cancel()(implicit pos: Position): Nothing

    Permalink

    Throws TestCanceledException to indicate a test was canceled.

    Throws TestCanceledException to indicate a test was canceled.

    Definition Classes
    Assertions
  28. def clone(): AnyRef

    Permalink
    Attributes
    protected[java.lang]
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef
    Annotations
    @throws( ... )
  29. def conversionCheckedConstraint[A, B](implicit equivalenceOfA: Equivalence[A], cnv: (B) ⇒ A): CanEqual[A, B]

    Permalink
    Definition Classes
    TripleEquals → TripleEqualsSupport
  30. def convertEquivalenceToAToBConstraint[A, B](equivalenceOfB: Equivalence[B])(implicit ev: <:<[A, B]): CanEqual[A, B]

    Permalink
    Definition Classes
    TripleEquals → TripleEqualsSupport
  31. def convertEquivalenceToAToBConversionConstraint[A, B](equivalenceOfB: Equivalence[B])(implicit ev: (A) ⇒ B): CanEqual[A, B]

    Permalink
    Definition Classes
    TripleEquals → TripleEqualsSupport
  32. def convertEquivalenceToBToAConstraint[A, B](equivalenceOfA: Equivalence[A])(implicit ev: <:<[B, A]): CanEqual[A, B]

    Permalink
    Definition Classes
    TripleEquals → TripleEqualsSupport
  33. def convertEquivalenceToBToAConversionConstraint[A, B](equivalenceOfA: Equivalence[A])(implicit ev: (B) ⇒ A): CanEqual[A, B]

    Permalink
    Definition Classes
    TripleEquals → TripleEqualsSupport
  34. def convertToCheckingEqualizer[T](left: T): CheckingEqualizer[T]

    Permalink
    Definition Classes
    TripleEquals → TripleEqualsSupport
  35. implicit def convertToEqualizer[T](left: T): Equalizer[T]

    Permalink
    Definition Classes
    TripleEquals → TripleEqualsSupport
  36. def defaultEquality[A]: Equality[A]

    Permalink
    Definition Classes
    TripleEqualsSupport
  37. def describe(description: String)(fun: ⇒ Unit)(implicit pos: Position): Unit

    Permalink

    Describe a “subject” being specified and tested by the passed function value.

    Describe a “subject” being specified and tested by the passed function value. The passed function value may contain more describers (defined with describe) and/or tests (defined with it).

    This class's implementation of this method will decide whether to register the description text and invoke the passed function based on whether or not this is part of the current "test path." For the details on this process, see the How it executes section of the main documentation for trait org.scalatest.path.FunSpec.

    Attributes
    protected
    Definition Classes
    FunSpecLike
  38. final def eq(arg0: AnyRef): Boolean

    Permalink
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef
  39. def equals(arg0: Any): Boolean

    Permalink
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef → Any
  40. final def expectedTestCount(filter: Filter): Int

    Permalink

    The total number of tests that are expected to run when this path.FunSpec's run method is invoked.

    The total number of tests that are expected to run when this path.FunSpec's run method is invoked.

    This trait's implementation of this method will first ensure that the results of all tests, each run its its own instance executing only the path to the test, are registered. For details on this process see the How it executes section in the main documentation for this trait.

    This trait's implementation of this method returns the size of the testNames List, minus the number of tests marked as ignored as well as any tests excluded by the passed Filter.

    This trait's implementation of this method is marked as final. For insight onto why, see the Shared fixtures section in the main documentation for this trait.

    filter

    a Filter with which to filter tests to count based on their tags

    Definition Classes
    FunSpecLikeSuiteMixinSuite
  41. def fail(cause: Throwable)(implicit pos: Position): Nothing

    Permalink

    Throws TestFailedException, with the passed Throwable cause, to indicate a test failed.

    Throws TestFailedException, with the passed Throwable cause, to indicate a test failed. The getMessage method of the thrown TestFailedException will return cause.toString.

    cause

    a Throwable that indicates the cause of the failure.

    Definition Classes
    Assertions
    Exceptions thrown

    NullArgumentException if cause is null

  42. def fail(message: String, cause: Throwable)(implicit pos: Position): Nothing

    Permalink

    Throws TestFailedException, with the passed String message as the exception's detail message and Throwable cause, to indicate a test failed.

    Throws TestFailedException, with the passed String message as the exception's detail message and Throwable cause, to indicate a test failed.

    message

    A message describing the failure.

    cause

    A Throwable that indicates the cause of the failure.

    Definition Classes
    Assertions
    Exceptions thrown

    NullArgumentException if message or cause is null

  43. def fail(message: String)(implicit pos: Position): Nothing

    Permalink

    Throws TestFailedException, with the passed String message as the exception's detail message, to indicate a test failed.

    Throws TestFailedException, with the passed String message as the exception's detail message, to indicate a test failed.

    message

    A message describing the failure.

    Definition Classes
    Assertions
    Exceptions thrown

    NullArgumentException if message is null

  44. def fail()(implicit pos: Position): Nothing

    Permalink

    Throws TestFailedException to indicate a test failed.

    Throws TestFailedException to indicate a test failed.

    Definition Classes
    Assertions
  45. def finalize(): Unit

    Permalink
    Attributes
    protected[java.lang]
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef
    Annotations
    @throws( classOf[java.lang.Throwable] )
  46. final def getClass(): Class[_]

    Permalink
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef → Any
  47. def hashCode(): Int

    Permalink
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef → Any
  48. def ignore(testText: String, testTags: Tag*)(testFun: ⇒ Unit)(implicit pos: Position): Unit

    Permalink

    Supports registration of a test to ignore.

    Supports registration of a test to ignore.

    For more information and examples of this method's use, see the Ignored tests section in the main documentation for sister trait org.scalatest.FunSpec. Note that a separate instance will be created for an ignored test, and the path to the ignored test will be executed in that instance, but the test function itself will not be executed. Instead, a TestIgnored event will be fired.

    testText

    the specification text, which will be combined with the descText of any surrounding describers to form the test name

    testTags

    the optional list of tags for this test

    testFun

    the test function

    Attributes
    protected
    Definition Classes
    FunSpecLike
    Exceptions thrown

    DuplicateTestNameException if a test with the same name has been registered previously

    NullArgumentException if specText or any passed test tag is null

    TestRegistrationClosedException if invoked after run has been invoked on this suite

  49. def info: Informer

    Permalink

    Returns an Informer that during test execution will forward strings (and other objects) passed to its apply method to the current reporter.

    Returns an Informer that during test execution will forward strings (and other objects) passed to its apply method to the current reporter. If invoked in a constructor (including within a test, since those are invoked during construction in a path.FunSpec, it will register the passed string for forwarding later when run is invoked. If invoked from inside a test function, it will record the information and forward it to the current reporter only after the test completed, as recordedEvents of the test completed event, such as TestSucceeded. If invoked at any other time, it will print to the standard output. This method can be called safely by any thread.

    Attributes
    protected
    Definition Classes
    FunSpecLikeInforming
  50. def intercept[T <: AnyRef](f: ⇒ Any)(implicit classTag: ClassTag[T], pos: Position): T

    Permalink

    Intercept and return an exception that's expected to be thrown by the passed function value.

    Intercept and return an exception that's expected to be thrown by the passed function value. The thrown exception must be an instance of the type specified by the type parameter of this method. This method invokes the passed function. If the function throws an exception that's an instance of the specified type, this method returns that exception. Else, whether the passed function returns normally or completes abruptly with a different exception, this method throws TestFailedException.

    Note that the type specified as this method's type parameter may represent any subtype of AnyRef, not just Throwable or one of its subclasses. In Scala, exceptions can be caught based on traits they implement, so it may at times make sense to specify a trait that the intercepted exception's class must mix in. If a class instance is passed for a type that could not possibly be used to catch an exception (such as String, for example), this method will complete abruptly with a TestFailedException.

    Also note that the difference between this method and assertThrows is that this method returns the expected exception, so it lets you perform further assertions on that exception. By contrast, the assertThrows method returns Succeeded, which means it can serve as the last statement in an async- or safe-style suite. assertThrows also indicates to the reader of the code that nothing further is expected about the thrown exception other than its type. The recommended usage is to use assertThrows by default, intercept only when you need to inspect the caught exception further.

    f

    the function value that should throw the expected exception

    classTag

    an implicit ClassTag representing the type of the specified type parameter.

    returns

    the intercepted exception, if it is of the expected type

    Definition Classes
    Assertions
    Exceptions thrown

    TestFailedException if the passed function does not complete abruptly with an exception that's an instance of the specified type.

  51. final def isInstanceOf[T0]: Boolean

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    Definition Classes
    Any
  52. val it: ItWord

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    Supports test (and shared test) registration in FunSpecs.

    Supports test (and shared test) registration in FunSpecs.

    This field supports syntax such as the following:

    it("should be empty")
    ^
    

     class="stExamples"
    it should behave like nonFullStack(stackWithOneItem)
    ^
    

    For more information and examples of the use of the it field, see the main documentation for this trait.

    Attributes
    protected
    Definition Classes
    FunSpecLike
  53. def lowPriorityConversionCheckedConstraint[A, B](implicit equivalenceOfB: Equivalence[B], cnv: (A) ⇒ B): CanEqual[A, B]

    Permalink
    Definition Classes
    TripleEquals → TripleEqualsSupport
  54. def lowPriorityTypeCheckedConstraint[A, B](implicit equivalenceOfB: Equivalence[B], ev: <:<[A, B]): CanEqual[A, B]

    Permalink
    Definition Classes
    TripleEquals → TripleEqualsSupport
  55. def markup: Documenter

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    Returns a Documenter that during test execution will forward strings (and other objects) passed to its apply method to the current reporter.

    Returns a Documenter that during test execution will forward strings (and other objects) passed to its apply method to the current reporter. If invoked in a constructor (including within a test, since those are invoked during construction in a path.FunSpec, it will register the passed string for forwarding later when run is invoked. If invoked from inside a test function, it will record the information and forward it to the current reporter only after the test completed, as recordedEvents of the test completed event, such as TestSucceeded. If invoked at any other time, it will print to the standard output. This method can be called safely by any thread.

    Attributes
    protected
    Definition Classes
    FunSpecLikeDocumenting
  56. final def ne(arg0: AnyRef): Boolean

    Permalink
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef
  57. final def nestedSuites: IndexedSeq[Suite]

    Permalink

    Returns an empty list.

    Returns an empty list.

    This lifecycle method is unused by this trait. If invoked, it will return an empty list, because nested suites are not allowed in a path.FunSpec. Because a path.FunSpec executes tests eagerly at construction time, registering the results of those test runs and reporting them later, the order of nested suites versus test runs would be different in a org.scalatest.path.FunSpec than in an org.scalatest.FunSpec. In an org.scalatest.FunSpec, nested suites are executed then tests are executed. In an org.scalatest.path.FunSpec it would be the opposite. To make the code easy to reason about, therefore, this is just not allowed. If you want to add nested suites to a path.FunSpec, you can instead wrap them all in a Suites object and put them in whatever order you wish.

    This trait's implementation of this method is marked as final. For insight onto why, see the Shared fixtures section in the main documentation for this trait.

    Definition Classes
    FunSpecLikeSuiteMixinSuite
  58. def note: Notifier

    Permalink

    Returns a Notifier that during test execution will forward strings passed to its apply method to the current reporter.

    Returns a Notifier that during test execution will forward strings passed to its apply method to the current reporter. If invoked in a constructor, it will register the passed string for forwarding later during test execution. If invoked while this path.FunSpec is being executed, such as from inside a test function, it will forward the information to the current reporter immediately. If invoked at any other time, it will print to the standard output. This method can be called safely by any thread.

    Attributes
    protected
    Definition Classes
    FunSpecLikeNotifying
  59. final def notify(): Unit

    Permalink
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef
  60. final def notifyAll(): Unit

    Permalink
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef
  61. def pending: Assertion with PendingStatement

    Permalink

    Throws TestPendingException to indicate a test is pending.

    Throws TestPendingException to indicate a test is pending.

    A pending test is one that has been given a name but is not yet implemented. The purpose of pending tests is to facilitate a style of testing in which documentation of behavior is sketched out before tests are written to verify that behavior (and often, the before the behavior of the system being tested is itself implemented). Such sketches form a kind of specification of what tests and functionality to implement later.

    To support this style of testing, a test can be given a name that specifies one bit of behavior required by the system being tested. The test can also include some code that sends more information about the behavior to the reporter when the tests run. At the end of the test, it can call method pending, which will cause it to complete abruptly with TestPendingException. Because tests in ScalaTest can be designated as pending with TestPendingException, both the test name and any information sent to the reporter when running the test can appear in the report of a test run. (In other words, the code of a pending test is executed just like any other test.) However, because the test completes abruptly with TestPendingException, the test will be reported as pending, to indicate the actual test, and possibly the functionality it is intended to test, has not yet been implemented.

    Note: This method always completes abruptly with a TestPendingException. Thus it always has a side effect. Methods with side effects are usually invoked with parentheses, as in pending(). This method is defined as a parameterless method, in flagrant contradiction to recommended Scala style, because it forms a kind of DSL for pending tests. It enables tests in suites such as FunSuite or FunSpec to be denoted by placing "(pending)" after the test name, as in:

    test("that style rules are not laws") (pending)
    

    Readers of the code see "pending" in parentheses, which looks like a little note attached to the test name to indicate it is pending. Whereas "(pending()) looks more like a method call, "(pending)" lets readers stay at a higher level, forgetting how it is implemented and just focusing on the intent of the programmer who wrote the code.

    Definition Classes
    Assertions
  62. def pendingUntilFixed(f: ⇒ Unit)(implicit pos: Position): Assertion with PendingStatement

    Permalink

    Execute the passed block of code, and if it completes abruptly, throw TestPendingException, else throw TestFailedException.

    Execute the passed block of code, and if it completes abruptly, throw TestPendingException, else throw TestFailedException.

    This method can be used to temporarily change a failing test into a pending test in such a way that it will automatically turn back into a failing test once the problem originally causing the test to fail has been fixed. At that point, you need only remove the pendingUntilFixed call. In other words, a pendingUntilFixed surrounding a block of code that isn't broken is treated as a test failure. The motivation for this behavior is to encourage people to remove pendingUntilFixed calls when there are no longer needed.

    This method facilitates a style of testing in which tests are written before the code they test. Sometimes you may encounter a test failure that requires more functionality than you want to tackle without writing more tests. In this case you can mark the bit of test code causing the failure with pendingUntilFixed. You can then write more tests and functionality that eventually will get your production code to a point where the original test won't fail anymore. At this point the code block marked with pendingUntilFixed will no longer throw an exception (because the problem has been fixed). This will in turn cause pendingUntilFixed to throw TestFailedException with a detail message explaining you need to go back and remove the pendingUntilFixed call as the problem orginally causing your test code to fail has been fixed.

    f

    a block of code, which if it completes abruptly, should trigger a TestPendingException

    Definition Classes
    Assertions
    Exceptions thrown

    TestPendingException if the passed block of code completes abruptly with an Exception or AssertionError

  63. def rerunner: Option[String]

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    The fully qualified class name of the rerunner to rerun this suite.

    The fully qualified class name of the rerunner to rerun this suite. This implementation will look at this.getClass and see if it is either an accessible Suite, or it has a WrapWith annotation. If so, it returns the fully qualified class name wrapped in a Some, or else it returns None.

    Definition Classes
    Suite
  64. final def run(testName: Option[String], args: Args): Status

    Permalink

    Runs this path.FunSpec, reporting test results that were registered when the tests were run, each during the construction of its own instance.

    Runs this path.FunSpec, reporting test results that were registered when the tests were run, each during the construction of its own instance.

    This trait's implementation of this method will first ensure that the results of all tests, each run its its own instance executing only the path to the test, are registered. For details on this process see the How it executes section in the main documentation for this trait.

    If testName is None, this trait's implementation of this method will report the registered results for all tests except any excluded by the passed Filter. If testName is defined, it will report the results of only that named test. Because a path.FunSpec is not allowed to contain nested suites, this trait's implementation of this method does not call runNestedSuites.

    This trait's implementation of this method is marked as final. For insight onto why, see the Shared fixtures section in the main documentation for this trait.

    testName

    an optional name of one test to run. If None, all relevant tests should be run. I.e., None acts like a wildcard that means run all relevant tests in this Suite.

    args

    the Args for this run

    returns

    a Status object that indicates when all tests and nested suites started by this method have completed, and whether or not a failure occurred.

    Definition Classes
    FunSpecLikeSuiteMixinSuite
    Exceptions thrown

    IllegalArgumentException if testName is defined, but no test with the specified test name exists in this Suite

    NullArgumentException if any passed parameter is null.

  65. final def runNestedSuites(args: Args): Status

    Permalink

    This lifecycle method is unused by this trait, and is implemented to do nothing.

    This lifecycle method is unused by this trait, and is implemented to do nothing. If invoked, it will just return immediately.

    Nested suites are not allowed in a path.FunSpec. Because a path.FunSpec executes tests eagerly at construction time, registering the results of those test runs and reporting them later, the order of nested suites versus test runs would be different in a org.scalatest.path.FunSpec than in an org.scalatest.FunSpec. In an org.scalatest.FunSpec, nested suites are executed then tests are executed. In an org.scalatest.path.FunSpec it would be the opposite. To make the code easy to reason about, therefore, this is just not allowed. If you want to add nested suites to a path.FunSpec, you can instead wrap them all in a Suites object and put them in whatever order you wish.

    This trait's implementation of this method is marked as final. For insight onto why, see the Shared fixtures section in the main documentation for this trait.

    args

    the Args for this run

    returns

    a Status object that indicates when all nested suites started by this method have completed, and whether or not a failure occurred.

    Attributes
    protected
    Definition Classes
    FunSpecLikeSuiteMixinSuite
  66. final def runTest(testName: String, args: Args): Status

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    Runs a test.

    Runs a test.

    This trait's implementation of this method will first ensure that the results of all tests, each run its its own instance executing only the path to the test, are registered. For details on this process see the How it executes section in the main documentation for this trait.

    This trait's implementation reports the test results registered with the name specified by testName. Each test's name is a concatenation of the text of all describers surrounding a test, from outside in, and the test's spec text, with one space placed between each item. (See the documentation for testNames for an example.)

    This trait's implementation of this method is marked as final. For insight onto why, see the Shared fixtures section in the main documentation for this trait.

    testName

    the name of one test to execute.

    args

    the Args for this run

    returns

    a Status object that indicates when the test started by this method has completed, and whether or not it failed [email protected] reporter the Reporter to which results will be reported

    Attributes
    protected
    Definition Classes
    FunSpecLikeOneInstancePerTestSuiteMixinSuite
    Exceptions thrown

    NullArgumentException if any of testName, reporter, stopper, or configMap is null.

  67. final def runTests(testName: Option[String], args: Args): Status

    Permalink

    This lifecycle method is unused by this trait, and will complete abruptly with UnsupportedOperationException if invoked.

    This lifecycle method is unused by this trait, and will complete abruptly with UnsupportedOperationException if invoked.

    This trait's implementation of this method is marked as final. For insight onto why, see the Shared fixtures section in the main documentation for this trait.

    testName

    an optional name of one test to run. If None, all relevant tests should be run. I.e., None acts like a wildcard that means run all relevant tests in this Suite.

    args

    the Args for this run

    returns

    a Status object that indicates when all tests started by this method have completed, and whether or not a failure occurred.

    Attributes
    protected
    Definition Classes
    FunSpecLikeOneInstancePerTestSuiteMixinSuite
  68. final val styleName: String

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    Suite style name.

    Suite style name.

    Definition Classes
    FunSpecLikeSuiteMixinSuite
  69. final val succeed: Assertion

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    The Succeeded singleton.

    The Succeeded singleton.

    You can use succeed to solve a type error when an async test does not end in either Future[Assertion] or Assertion. Because Assertion is a type alias for Succeeded.type, putting succeed at the end of a test body (or at the end of a function being used to map the final future of a test body) will solve the type error.

    Definition Classes
    Assertions
  70. def suiteId: String

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    A string ID for this Suite that is intended to be unique among all suites reported during a run.

    A string ID for this Suite that is intended to be unique among all suites reported during a run.

    This trait's implementation of this method returns the fully qualified name of this object's class. Each suite reported during a run will commonly be an instance of a different Suite class, and in such cases, this default implementation of this method will suffice. However, in special cases you may need to override this method to ensure it is unique for each reported suite. For example, if you write a Suite subclass that reads in a file whose name is passed to its constructor and dynamically creates a suite of tests based on the information in that file, you will likely need to override this method in your Suite subclass, perhaps by appending the pathname of the file to the fully qualified class name. That way if you run a suite of tests based on a directory full of these files, you'll have unique suite IDs for each reported suite.

    The suite ID is intended to be unique, because ScalaTest does not enforce that it is unique. If it is not unique, then you may not be able to uniquely identify a particular test of a particular suite. This ability is used, for example, to dynamically tag tests as having failed in the previous run when rerunning only failed tests.

    returns

    this Suite object's ID.

    Definition Classes
    Suite
  71. def suiteName: String

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    A user-friendly suite name for this Suite.

    A user-friendly suite name for this Suite.

    This trait's implementation of this method returns the simple name of this object's class. This trait's implementation of runNestedSuites calls this method to obtain a name for Reports to pass to the suiteStarting, suiteCompleted, and suiteAborted methods of the Reporter.

    returns

    this Suite object's suite name.

    Definition Classes
    Suite
  72. final def synchronized[T0](arg0: ⇒ T0): T0

    Permalink
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef
  73. final def tags: Map[String, Set[String]]

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    A Map whose keys are String tag names to which tests in this path.FreeSpec belong, and values the Set of test names that belong to each tag.

    A Map whose keys are String tag names to which tests in this path.FreeSpec belong, and values the Set of test names that belong to each tag. If this path.FreeSpec contains no tags, this method returns an empty Map.

    This trait's implementation of this method will first ensure that the results of all tests, each run its its own instance executing only the path to the test, are registered. For details on this process see the How it executes section in the main documentation for this trait.

    This trait's implementation returns tags that were passed as strings contained in Tag objects passed to methods it and ignore.

    In addition, this trait's implementation will also auto-tag tests with class level annotations. For example, if you annotate @Ignore at the class level, all test methods in the class will be auto-annotated with @Ignore.

    This trait's implementation of this method is marked as final. For insight onto why, see the Shared fixtures section in the main documentation for this trait.

    Definition Classes
    FunSpecLikeSuiteMixinSuite
  74. def testDataFor(testName: String, theConfigMap: ConfigMap = ConfigMap.empty): TestData

    Permalink

    Provides a TestData instance for the passed test name, given the passed config map.

    Provides a TestData instance for the passed test name, given the passed config map.

    This method is used to obtain a TestData instance to pass to withFixture(NoArgTest) and withFixture(OneArgTest) and the beforeEach and afterEach methods of trait BeforeAndAfterEach.

    testName

    the name of the test for which to return a TestData instance

    theConfigMap

    the config map to include in the returned TestData

    returns

    a TestData instance for the specified test, which includes the specified config map

    Definition Classes
    FunSpecLikeSuiteMixinSuite
  75. final def testNames: Set[String]

    Permalink

    An immutable Set of test names.

    An immutable Set of test names. If this FunSpec contains no tests, this method returns an empty Set.

    This trait's implementation of this method will first ensure that the results of all tests, each run its its own instance executing only the path to the test, are registered. For details on this process see the How it executes section in the main documentation for this trait.

    This trait's implementation of this method will return a set that contains the names of all registered tests. The set's iterator will return those names in the order in which the tests were registered. Each test's name is composed of the concatenation of the text of each surrounding describer, in order from outside in, and the text of the example itself, with all components separated by a space. For example, consider this FunSpec:

    import org.scalatest.path
    
    class StackSpec extends path.FunSpec {
      describe("A Stack") {
        describe("when not empty") {
          "must allow me to pop" in {}
        }
        describe("when not full") {
          "must allow me to push" in {}
        }
      }
    }
    

    Invoking testNames on this FunSpec will yield a set that contains the following two test name strings:

    "A Stack when not empty must allow me to pop"
    "A Stack when not full must allow me to push"
    

    This trait's implementation of this method is marked as final. For insight onto why, see the Shared fixtures section in the main documentation for this trait.

    Definition Classes
    FunSpecLikeSuiteMixinSuite
  76. val they: TheyWord

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    Supports test (and shared test) registration in FunSpecs.

    Supports test (and shared test) registration in FunSpecs.

    This field supports syntax such as the following:

    it("should be empty")
    ^
    

     class="stExamples"
    it should behave like nonFullStack(stackWithOneItem)
    ^
    

    For more information and examples of the use of the it field, see the main documentation for this trait.

    Attributes
    protected
    Definition Classes
    FunSpecLike
  77. def toString(): String

    Permalink

    Returns a user friendly string for this suite, composed of the simple name of the class (possibly simplified further by removing dollar signs if added by the Scala interpeter) and, if this suite contains nested suites, the result of invoking toString on each of the nested suites, separated by commas and surrounded by parentheses.

    Returns a user friendly string for this suite, composed of the simple name of the class (possibly simplified further by removing dollar signs if added by the Scala interpeter) and, if this suite contains nested suites, the result of invoking toString on each of the nested suites, separated by commas and surrounded by parentheses.

    returns

    a user-friendly string for this suite

    Definition Classes
    FunSpec → AnyRef → Any
  78. def typeCheckedConstraint[A, B](implicit equivalenceOfA: Equivalence[A], ev: <:<[B, A]): CanEqual[A, B]

    Permalink
    Definition Classes
    TripleEquals → TripleEqualsSupport
  79. implicit def unconstrainedEquality[A, B](implicit equalityOfA: Equality[A]): CanEqual[A, B]

    Permalink
    Definition Classes
    TripleEquals → TripleEqualsSupport
  80. final def wait(): Unit

    Permalink
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef
    Annotations
    @throws( ... )
  81. final def wait(arg0: Long, arg1: Int): Unit

    Permalink
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef
    Annotations
    @throws( ... )
  82. final def wait(arg0: Long): Unit

    Permalink
    Definition Classes
    AnyRef
    Annotations
    @throws( ... )
  83. def withClue[T](clue: Any)(fun: ⇒ T): T

    Permalink

    Executes the block of code passed as the second parameter, and, if it completes abruptly with a ModifiableMessage exception, prepends the "clue" string passed as the first parameter to the beginning of the detail message of that thrown exception, then rethrows it.

    Executes the block of code passed as the second parameter, and, if it completes abruptly with a ModifiableMessage exception, prepends the "clue" string passed as the first parameter to the beginning of the detail message of that thrown exception, then rethrows it. If clue does not end in a white space character, one space will be added between it and the existing detail message (unless the detail message is not defined).

    This method allows you to add more information about what went wrong that will be reported when a test fails. Here's an example:

    withClue("(Employee's name was: " + employee.name + ")") {
      intercept[IllegalArgumentException] {
        employee.getTask(-1)
      }
    }
    

    If an invocation of intercept completed abruptly with an exception, the resulting message would be something like:

    (Employee's name was Bob Jones) Expected IllegalArgumentException to be thrown, but no exception was thrown
    

    Definition Classes
    Assertions
    Exceptions thrown

    NullArgumentException if the passed clue is null

Deprecated Value Members

  1. def trap[T](f: ⇒ T): Throwable

    Permalink

    Trap and return any thrown exception that would normally cause a ScalaTest test to fail, or create and return a new RuntimeException indicating no exception is thrown.

    Trap and return any thrown exception that would normally cause a ScalaTest test to fail, or create and return a new RuntimeException indicating no exception is thrown.

    This method is intended to be used in the Scala interpreter to eliminate large stack traces when trying out ScalaTest assertions and matcher expressions. It is not intended to be used in regular test code. If you want to ensure that a bit of code throws an expected exception, use intercept, not trap. Here's an example interpreter session without trap:

    scala> import org.scalatest._
    import org.scalatest._
    
    scala> import Matchers._
    import Matchers._
    
    scala> val x = 12
    a: Int = 12
    
    scala> x shouldEqual 13
    org.scalatest.exceptions.TestFailedException: 12 did not equal 13
       at org.scalatest.Assertions$class.newAssertionFailedException(Assertions.scala:449)
       at org.scalatest.Assertions$.newAssertionFailedException(Assertions.scala:1203)
       at org.scalatest.Assertions$AssertionsHelper.macroAssertTrue(Assertions.scala:417)
       at .<init>(<console>:15)
       at .<clinit>(<console>)
       at .<init>(<console>:7)
       at .<clinit>(<console>)
       at $print(<console>)
       at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
       at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:39)
       at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:25)
       at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:597)
       at scala.tools.nsc.interpreter.IMain$ReadEvalPrint.call(IMain.scala:731)
       at scala.tools.nsc.interpreter.IMain$Request.loadAndRun(IMain.scala:980)
       at scala.tools.nsc.interpreter.IMain.loadAndRunReq$1(IMain.scala:570)
       at scala.tools.nsc.interpreter.IMain.interpret(IMain.scala:601)
       at scala.tools.nsc.interpreter.IMain.interpret(IMain.scala:565)
       at scala.tools.nsc.interpreter.ILoop.reallyInterpret$1(ILoop.scala:745)
       at scala.tools.nsc.interpreter.ILoop.interpretStartingWith(ILoop.scala:790)
       at scala.tools.nsc.interpreter.ILoop.command(ILoop.scala:702)
       at scala.tools.nsc.interpreter.ILoop.processLine$1(ILoop.scala:566)
       at scala.tools.nsc.interpreter.ILoop.innerLoop$1(ILoop.scala:573)
       at scala.tools.nsc.interpreter.ILoop.loop(ILoop.scala:576)
       at scala.tools.nsc.interpreter.ILoop$$anonfun$process$1.apply$mcZ$sp(ILoop.scala:867)
       at scala.tools.nsc.interpreter.ILoop$$anonfun$process$1.apply(ILoop.scala:822)
       at scala.tools.nsc.interpreter.ILoop$$anonfun$process$1.apply(ILoop.scala:822)
       at scala.tools.nsc.util.ScalaClassLoader$.savingContextLoader(ScalaClassLoader.scala:135)
       at scala.tools.nsc.interpreter.ILoop.process(ILoop.scala:822)
       at scala.tools.nsc.MainGenericRunner.runTarget$1(MainGenericRunner.scala:83)
       at scala.tools.nsc.MainGenericRunner.process(MainGenericRunner.scala:96)
       at scala.tools.nsc.MainGenericRunner$.main(MainGenericRunner.scala:105)
       at scala.tools.nsc.MainGenericRunner.main(MainGenericRunner.scala)
    

    That's a pretty tall stack trace. Here's what it looks like when you use trap:

    scala> trap { x shouldEqual 13 }
    res1: Throwable = org.scalatest.exceptions.TestFailedException: 12 did not equal 13
    

    Much less clutter. Bear in mind, however, that if no exception is thrown by the passed block of code, the trap method will create a new NormalResult (a subclass of Throwable made for this purpose only) and return that. If the result was the Unit value, it will simply say that no exception was thrown:

    scala> trap { x shouldEqual 12 }
    res2: Throwable = No exception was thrown.
    

    If the passed block of code results in a value other than Unit, the NormalResult's toString will print the value:

    scala> trap { "Dude!" }
    res3: Throwable = No exception was thrown. Instead, result was: "Dude!"
    

    Although you can access the result value from the NormalResult, its type is Any and therefore not very convenient to use. It is not intended that trap be used in test code. The sole intended use case for trap is decluttering Scala interpreter sessions by eliminating stack traces when executing assertion and matcher expressions.

    Definition Classes
    Assertions
    Annotations
    @deprecated
    Deprecated

    The trap method is no longer needed for demos in the REPL, which now abreviates stack traces, and will be removed in a future version of ScalaTest

Inherited from FunSpecLike

Inherited from Documenting

Inherited from Alerting

Inherited from Notifying

Inherited from Informing

Inherited from OneInstancePerTest

Inherited from SuiteMixin

Inherited from Suite

Inherited from Serializable

Inherited from Serializable

Inherited from Assertions

Inherited from TripleEquals

Inherited from TripleEqualsSupport

Inherited from AnyRef

Inherited from Any

Ungrouped